The TreeView has CheckBoxMode="@TreeViewCheckBoxMode.Multiple" and CheckParents="true". Only some checkboxes are checked and there are parent checkboxes in indeterminate state.
When I try to clear all checked checkboxes, the indeterminate checkboxes are not cleared and maintain their state.
Initially, this bug report was about unchecking all child items. However, it appears that the opposite behavior exists too - if all children are checked programmatically, the parent checkbox will show as indeterminate. In this case, check the parent explicitly as well.